Introduction to Noun Incorporation

Verbs which have incorporated nouns are made by taking a noun such as oyęhsraˀ blanket, and then removing its prefixes and suffixes to leave the stem -yęhsra-. The stem is then incorporated into a verb such as gadęhda:ˀ it is lying spread out on the ground. The result is a verb which describes both the object and its position: ga-yęhsra-dęhda:ˀ it is a blanket lying spread out on the ground.

Here are a few examples of noun incorporation. (Note: some of the spellings have been modified to make the relationships between the words easier to see.)



Verb with incorporated noun stem

ga-hǫw-aˀ boat

w-adihǫh it is leaning

ga̲-hǫw-adihǫh it is a leaning boat

o-hah-aˀ road

ni-w-u:ˀuh it is small

ni-yo-hah-u:ˀuh it is a small road

To give you a better idea of how noun incorporation works, all of the following verbs contain the incorporated noun -yęhsr-, or -yęhsra-.

Verb with incorporated noun -yęhsr(a)-

Verb without incorporated noun

ga-yęhsra-ęˀ it is a blanket lying on the ground

ga:-yęˀ it is lying on the ground

ga-yęhsra-ni:yǫ:t it is a hanging blanket

ga-ni:yǫ:t it is hanging

o-yęhsr-owa:nęh it is a big blanket

g-owa:nęh it is big

o-yęhsr-ase:ˀ it is a new blanket

a:se:ˀ it is new

o-yęhsra-ga:yǫh it is an old blanket

o-ga:yǫh it is old

o-yęhsra-tgiˀ it is an ugly blanket

o-tgiˀ it is ugly

None: NounIncorporationIntro (last edited 2013-06-01 16:22:43 by LanaWilliams)