Positional verbs and pronominal prefix choice



degahǫˀ

it's across (i.e. something laying across a path or across a door)

gadęhda:ˀ

it's lying spread out on the floor or the ground

gagęˀdo:ˀ

it's stuck on something else (i.e. a wall); it is stuck under something but it's removeable (i.e. a piece of gum under a table)

gagehǫˀ

things are lying around

ga̲he:ˀ

it's sitting on top of something

gahnyo:t

it's standing

gani:yǫ:t

it's hanging

ga:yęˀ

it's lying on the ground

i:ga:t

it's standing (check form)

wadihǫh

it's leaning

However, a few positional verbs take the patient pronominal prefix o- instead:

owaˀnęda:go:

it's stuck on the wall

owaˀnę:da:ˀ

it's stuck

Positional verbs can have incorporated nouns; when this happens, the pronominal prefix of the verb often matches that of the noun. For example, the verb wadihǫh it's leaning begins with ga- when it incorporates a noun beginning with ga-; in contrast, wadihǫh begins with o- when the incorporated noun begins with o-.

gahǫwaˀ

boat

gahǫwadihǫh

a leaning boat

ohahaˀ

road

ohahaˀdihǫh

the Milky Way

Similarly, the verb ga̲he:ˀ it's sitting on top of something begins with wa- when the incorporated noun begins with a-; with ga- when the incorporated noun begins with ga-; and with o- when the incorporated noun begins with o-.

ahsgwaˀ

roof

wa̲hsgwagaeheˀ

slanted (roof)

ganaˀjaˀ

pail

ganaˀja̲he:ˀ

pail setting up on something

ohsgęˀdraˀ

rust

ohsgęˀdra̲he:ˀ

it is rusty

One exception to the above description is the verb gani:yǫ:t it's hanging. This verb never begins with the patient prefix (o-), even when contains a noun beginning with o-. For example, although onhohaˀ door begins with o- (a patient prefix), the verb ganhohani:yǫ:t nevertheless begins with ga- (an agent prefix).

ga-, a-, o-

not o-

oyęhsraˀ

blanket

gayęhsrani:yǫ:t

hanging blanket

adęhęˀ

fence

wadęhęni:yǫ:t

gate (lit. hanging fence)

ahgwęnyaˀ

clothes

ahgwę:ni:yǫt

hanging clothes

oyahkwaˀ

pants

gayahkwani:yǫ:t

hanging pants

onhohaˀ

door

ganhohani:yǫ:t

gate, lit. hanging door

Prefix choice for three very frequent positional verbs

Three of the positional verbs occur very frequently and for this reason, pronominal prefix selection for these verbs is described in greater detail. The verbs are listed below according to their stem (how they appear at the end of the word):



None: PositionalVerbPrefixChoice (last edited 2013-06-02 11:53:08 by LanaWilliams)