Phone

Phones are the main unit of an IPA transcription. They are composed of a vowel or consonant (or base glyph) along with optional diacritics. Diacritics are of the following types: prefix (e.g., pre-nasalization), combining (e.g., devoicing), length, suffix (e.g., aspiration), and tone. The following sections outline each part of a single Phone.

Prefix Diacritic

A prefix diacritic must appear before the base glyph. A phone may have multiple prefix diacritics.

Base Glyph

The base glyph can be any IPA vowel or consonant.

Combining Diacritic

Combining diacritics must appear directly after the base glyph; any number of combining diacritics may be used. Combining diacritics may also be added to prefix and suffix diacritics.

Length

Phone length is indicated using character 0x02D0 (long) and 0x02D1 (half-long.) Length diacritics must appear after the phone to which they belong.

Suffix Diacritic

A suffix diacritic must appear after the base glyph. A phone may have multiple suffix diacritics.

Tone

Tone diacritics (such as upstep or tone numbers) must appear as the last element in a phone.

Note: Please consult for a list of possible IPA elements and their character types.
Some Possible Phones Description
t̪ʰ Aspirated dental [t]
aːːː¹ Triple-long [a], Tone 1
ⁿd Prenasalised [d]
ᵐṳ̀ Prenasalised, breathy voiced [u], with combining diacritic low tone