CHAT Main Line

The CHAT main line codes the basic transcription of what a speaker said. The main line includes both pronounced forms and markers. In CHAT the main line starts with an asterisk followed by the speaker ID, a colon and a tab; the remainder of the line is the orthographic transcription. More information about the CHAT main line can be found at


*CHI:   hello world!

In Phon, the main line is mapped to the Orthography tier. Each main line in a CHAT document cooresponds to a single record in a Phon session. Phon supports many of the same coding standards as CHAT. This document will outline many of the common codings as well as any differences from CHAT. See for complete documentation.

Special Form Markers

The following special form markers are available in Phon. For more information about special form markers see

Letters Category Example Meaning
@a addition xxx@a unintelligible
@b babbling abame@b
@c child-invented form gumma@c sticky
@d dialect form younz@d you
@e echolalia, repetition want@e more@e want more
@f family-specific form bunko@f broken
@fs filled-syllable uh@fs
@fp filled-pause xxx@fp
@g general special form gonga@g
@i interjection, interaction uhhuh@i
@k multiple letters ka@k Japanese “ka”
@l letter b@l letter 'b'
@n neologism broked@b broken
@si singing lalala@si singing
@sl signed language apple@sl apple
@sas sign & speech apple@sas apple
@t test word wut@t what
@u unibet transcription binga@u
@wp word play goobarumba@wp
@x excluded words stuff@x excluded
@z:* user-defined code word@z:rtfd any user code