Word Match

The Word Match analysis offers a series of whole-word assessments of pronunciation accuracy, accounting for matches and mismatches for the whole word, CV word shape, syllable number (word length), and stress patterns.


Figure 1. Word Match Parameters

Word Match Parameters
The following parameters are available:
  • Word Match Options - these options affect how comparisions between IPA Target and IPA Actual words are performed. (See Diacritic Options)
  • CV Pattern Options - these options affect how the CV pattern of IPA transcripts is constructed.
    • Strip diacritics - See Diacritic Options
    • Include stress markers
    • Include explicit syllable boundaries (syllable breaks marked with a dot '.')
    • Insert implicit syllable boundaries - insert a dot at every syllable break which is not marked with stress.
    • Compensatory lengthening - any C or V marked with a long or halflong diacritic will be doubled. Note: if length diacritics are ignored then this setting will have no effect.
    • Simplify composed phones - phones composed with a ligature will be reduced to a single character.

Report Outline

An example table of contents is displayed below. Bold level elements are section headers while italic items are tables. Click here to see an example report.

  • Word Match

    • Summary (all participants)
    • Participant 1

      • Summary

      • Matches
      • Mismatches
      • CV Pattern Matches
      • CV Pattern Mismatches
      • Stress Matches
      • Stress Mismatches
      • Syllable Count Matches
      • Syllable Count Mismatches
    • … (for each selected participant)
    • Listing (all results)


Whole word match

Bernhardt, B.M., Stemberger, J.P., Bérubé, D., Ciocca, V., Freitas, M.-J., Ignatova, D., Kogošek, D., Lundeborg Hammarström I., Másdóttir, T., Ozbič, M., Perez, D. & Ramalho, A.M. 2020. Identification of protracted phonological development across languages - The Whole Word Match and basic mismatch measures. In E. Babatsouli, M. Ball & N. Müller (eds.), AnAnthologyofBilingualChildPhonology (pp.274-308). Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters. doi.org/10.21832/BABATS8410

Word structure measures

Bernhardt, B., & Gilbert, J. 1992. Applying linguistic theory to speech-language pathology: the case for nonlinear phonology. Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics, 6, 123-145.

Bernhardt, B.M., Hanson, R., Perez, D., Ávila, C., Lleó, C., Stemberger, J.P., Carballo, G., Mendoza, E., Fresneda, D. & Chávez-Peón, M. 2015. Word structures of Granada Spanish-speaking preschoolers with typical versus protracted phonological development. Intl. Jnl. of Lang. & Communication Disorders, 50(3), 298-311. DOI: 10.1111/1460-6984.12133.

Bernhardt, B.M. & Stemberger, J.P. 2000. Workbook in nonlinear phonology for clinical application. Copyright with authors, available at phonodevelopment.sites.olt.ubc.ca (Test Materials/English, at the bottom).

Romonath, R. & Bernhardt, B.M. 2017. Erwerb prosodischer Wortstrukturen bei Vorschulkindern mit und ohne phonologische Störungen [Prosodic word structure acquisition in preschool children with and without phonological disorders]. Forschung Sprache 1, 91-107.

Stemberger, J.P. & Bernhardt, B.M. 2018. Tap and trill clusters in typical and protracted phonological development: Challenging segments in complex phonological environments. Introduction to the special issue, Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics, 32 (5-6), 563-575.